DSA using C - Linked List


Advertisements

Overview

Linked List is a sequence of links which contains items. Each link contains a connection to another link. Linked list the second most used data structure after array. Following are important terms to understand the concepts of Linked List.

  • Link − Each Link of a linked list can store a data called an element.

  • Next − Each Link of a linked list contain a link to next link called Next.

  • LinkedList − A LinkedList contains the connection link to the first Link called First.

Linked List Representation

Linked List

As per above shown illustration, following are the important points to be considered.

  • LinkedList contains an link element called first.

  • Each Link carries a data field(s) and a Link Field called next.

  • Each Link is linked with its next link using its next link.

  • Last Link carries a Link as null to mark the end of the list.

Types of Linked List

Following are the various flavours of linked list.

  • Simple Linked List − Item Navigation is forward only.

  • Doubly Linked List − Items can be navigated forward and backward way.

  • Circular Linked List − Last item contains link of the first element as next and and first element has link to last element as prev.

Basic Operations

Following are the basic operations supported by a list.

  • Insertion − add an element at the beginning of the list.

  • Deletion − delete an element at the beginning of the list.

  • Display − displaying complete list.

  • Search − search an element using given key.

  • Delete − delete an element using given key.

Insertion Operation

Insertion is a three step process −

  • Create a new Link with provided data.

  • Point New Link to old First Link.

  • Point First Link to this New Link.

Linked List Insert First

//insert link at the first location
void insertFirst(int key, int data){
   //create a link
   struct node *link = (struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
   link->key = key;
   link->data = data;
   
   //point it to old first node
   link->next = head;
   
   //point first to new first node
   head = link;
}

Deletion Operation

Deletion is a two step process −

  • Get the Link pointed by First Link as Temp Link.

  • Point First Link to Temp Link's Next Link.

Linked List Delete First

//delete first item
struct node* deleteFirst(){
   //save reference to first link
   struct node *tempLink = head;
   
   //mark next to first link as first 
   head = head->next;
   
   //return the deleted link
   return tempLink;
}

Navigation Operation

Navigation is a recursive step process and is basis of many operations like search, delete etc. −

  • Get the Link pointed by First Link as Current Link.

  • Check if Current Link is not null and display it.

  • Point Current Link to Next Link of Current Link and move to above step.

Linked List Navigation

Note −

//display the list
void printList(){
   struct node *ptr = head;
   printf("\n[ ");
   
   //start from the beginning
   while(ptr != NULL){        
      printf("(%d,%d) ",ptr->key,ptr->data);
      ptr = ptr->next;
   }
   printf(" ]");
}

Advanced Operations

Following are the advanced operations specified for a list.

  • Sort − sorting a list based on a particular order.

  • Reverse − reversing a linked list.

Sort Operation

We've used bubble sort to sort a list.

void sort(){
   int i, j, k, tempKey, tempData ;
   struct node *current;
   struct node *next;
   int size = length();
   k = size ;
   for ( i = 0 ; i < size - 1 ; i++, k-- ) {
      current = head ;
      next = head->next ;
      for ( j = 1 ; j < k ; j++ ) {            
         if ( current->data > next->data ) {
            tempData = current->data ;
            current->data = next->data;
            next->data = tempData ;

            tempKey = current->key;
            current->key = next->key;
            next->key = tempKey;
         }
         current = current->next;
         next = next->next;                        
      }
   }
}

Reverse Operation

Following code demonstrate reversing a single linked list.

void reverse(struct node** head_ref) {
   struct node* prev   = NULL;
   struct node* current = *head_ref;
   struct node* next;
   while (current != NULL) {
      next  = current->next;  
      current->next = prev;   
      prev = current;
      current = next;
   }
   *head_ref = prev;
}

Example

LinkedListDemo.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

struct node {
   int data;
   int key;
   struct node *next;
};
struct node *head = NULL;
struct node *current = NULL;

//display the list
void printList(){
   struct node *ptr = head;
   printf("\n[ ");
   
   //start from the beginning
   while(ptr != NULL){        
      printf("(%d,%d) ",ptr->key,ptr->data);
      ptr = ptr->next;
   }
   printf(" ]");
}
//insert link at the first location
void insertFirst(int key, int data){
   //create a link
   struct node *link = (struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
   link->key = key;
   link->data = data;
   
   //point it to old first node
   link->next = head;
   
   //point first to new first node
   head = link;
}
//delete first item
struct node* deleteFirst(){
   //save reference to first link
   struct node *tempLink = head;
   
   //mark next to first link as first 
   head = head->next;
   
   //return the deleted link
   return tempLink;
}
//is list empty
bool isEmpty(){
   return head == NULL;
}
int length(){
   int length = 0;
   struct node *current;
   for(current = head; current!=NULL;
      current = current->next){
      length++;
   }
   return length;
}
//find a link with given key
struct node* find(int key){
   //start from the first link
   struct node* current = head;

   //if list is empty
   if(head == NULL){
      return NULL;
   }
   //navigate through list
   while(current->key != key){
      //if it is last node
      if(current->next == NULL){
         return NULL;
      } else {
         //go to next link
         current = current->next;
      }
   }
   //if data found, return the current Link
   return current;
}
//delete a link with given key
struct node* delete(int key){
   //start from the first link
   struct node* current = head;
   struct node* previous = NULL;
   
   //if list is empty
   if(head == NULL){
      return NULL;
   }
   //navigate through list
   while(current->key != key){
      //if it is last node
      if(current->next == NULL){
         return NULL;
      } else {
         //store reference to current link
         previous = current;
         
         //move to next link
         current = current->next;             
      }
   }
   //found a match, update the link
   if(current == head) {
      //change first to point to next link
      head = head->next;
   } else {
      //bypass the current link
      previous->next = current->next;
   }
   return current;
}
void sort(){
   int i, j, k, tempKey, tempData ;
   struct node *current;
   struct node *next;
   int size = length();
   k = size ;
   for ( i = 0 ; i < size - 1 ; i++, k-- ) {
      current = head ;
      next = head->next ;
      for ( j = 1 ; j < k ; j++ ) {            
         if ( current->data > next->data ) {
            tempData = current->data ;
            current->data = next->data;
            next->data = tempData ;

            tempKey = current->key;
            current->key = next->key;
            next->key = tempKey;
         }
         current = current->next;
         next = next->next;                        
      }
   }
}
void reverse(struct node** head_ref) {
   struct node* prev   = NULL;
   struct node* current = *head_ref;
   struct node* next;
   while (current != NULL) {
      next  = current->next;  
      current->next = prev;   
      prev = current;
      current = next;
   }
   *head_ref = prev;
}

main() {
   insertFirst(1,10);
   insertFirst(2,20);
   insertFirst(3,30);
   insertFirst(4,1);
   insertFirst(5,40);
   insertFirst(6,56); 

   printf("Original List: "); 
   //print list
   printList();

   while(!isEmpty()){            
      struct node *temp = deleteFirst();
      printf("\nDeleted value:");  
      printf("(%d,%d) ",temp->key,temp->data);        
   }         
   printf("\nList after deleting all items: ");          
   printList();
   insertFirst(1,10);
   insertFirst(2,20);
   insertFirst(3,30);
   insertFirst(4,1);
   insertFirst(5,40);
   insertFirst(6,56); 
   printf("\nRestored List: ");  
   printList();
   printf("\n");  

   struct node *foundLink = find(4);
   if(foundLink != NULL){
      printf("Element found: ");  
      printf("(%d,%d) ",foundLink->key,foundLink->data);  
      printf("\n");  
   } else {
      printf("Element not found.");  
   }
   delete(4);
   printf("List after deleting an item: ");  
   printList();
   printf("\n");
   foundLink = find(4);
   if(foundLink != NULL){
      printf("Element found: ");  
      printf("(%d,%d) ",foundLink->key,foundLink->data);  
      printf("\n");  
   } else {
      printf("Element not found.");  
   }
   printf("\n");  
   sort();
   printf("List after sorting the data: ");  
   printList();
   reverse(&head);
   printf("\nList after reversing the data: ");  
   printList();
}

Output

If we compile and run the above program then it would produce following Output −

Original List: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (4,1) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Deleted value:(6,56) 
Deleted value:(5,40) 
Deleted value:(4,1) 
Deleted value:(3,30) 
Deleted value:(2,20) 
Deleted value:(1,10) 
List after deleting all items: 
[ ]
Restored List: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (4,1) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Element found: (4,1) 
List after deleting an item: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Element not found.
List after sorting the data: 
[ (1,10) (2,20) (3,30) (5,40) (6,56) ]
List after reversing the data: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Advertisements