DSA using C - Bubble Sort


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Overview

Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm. This sorting algorithm is comparison based algorithm in which each pair of adjacent elements is compared and elements are swapped if they are not in order. This algorithm is not suitable for large data sets as its average and worst case complexity are of O(n2) where n are no. of items.

Pseudocode

procedure bubbleSort( A : array of items )
   for i = 1 to length(A) - 1 inclusive do:
      swapped = false
      for j = 1 to length(A) - 1 inclusive do:
         /* compare the adjacent elements */   
         if A[i-1] > A[i] then
            /* swap them */
            swap( A[i-1], A[i] )		 
            swapped = true
         end if
      end for
      /*if no number was swapped that means 
      array is sorted now, break the loop.*/
      if(!swapped) then
         break	 
   end for
end procedure

Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#define MAX 7

int intArray[MAX] = {4,6,3,2,1,9,7};
void printline(int count){
   int i;
   for(i=0;i <count-1;i++){
      printf("=");
   }
   printf("=\n");
}
void display(){
   int i;
   printf("[");
   // navigate through all items 
   for(i=0;i<MAX;i++){
      printf("%d ",intArray[i]);
   }
	printf("]\n");
}
void bubbleSort(){
   int temp;
	int i,j;
   bool swapped = false;       
   // loop through all numbers 
   for(i=0; i < MAX-1; i++){ 
      swapped = false;
      // loop through numbers falling ahead 
      for(j=1; j < MAX-i; j++){
		   printf("Items compared: [ %d, %d ]\n" ,intArray[j-1],intArray[j]);
         // check if next number is lesser than current no
         // swap the numbers. 
         // (Bubble up the highest number) 
         if(intArray[j-1] > intArray[j]){
            temp=intArray[j-1];
            intArray[j-1] = intArray[j];
            intArray[j] = temp;
            swapped = true;
         }           
      }
      // if no number was swapped that means 
      // array is sorted now, break the loop. 
      if(!swapped){
         break;
      }
      printf("Iteration %d#: ",(i+1)); 
      display();                     
   }
}
main(){
   printf("Input Array: ");
   display();
   printline(50);
   bubbleSort();
   printf("Output Array: ");
   display();
   printline(50);
}

Output

If we compile and run the above program then it would produce following output −

Input Array: [4, 6, 3, 2, 1, 9, 7]
==================================================
   Items compared: [ 4, 6 ]
   Items compared: [ 6, 3 ]
   Items compared: [ 6, 2 ]
   Items compared: [ 6, 1 ]
   Items compared: [ 6, 9 ]
   Items compared: [ 9, 7 ]
Iteration 1#: [4, 3, 2, 1, 6, 7, 9]
   Items compared: [ 4, 3 ]
   Items compared: [ 4, 2 ]
   Items compared: [ 4, 1 ]
   Items compared: [ 4, 6 ]
   Items compared: [ 6, 7 ]
Iteration 2#: [3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 7, 9]
   Items compared: [ 3, 2 ]
   Items compared: [ 3, 1 ]
   Items compared: [ 3, 4 ]
   Items compared: [ 4, 6 ]
Iteration 3#: [2, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9]
   Items compared: [ 2, 1 ]
   Items compared: [ 2, 3 ]
   Items compared: [ 3, 4 ]
Iteration 4#: [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9]
   Items compared: [ 1, 2 ]
   Items compared: [ 2, 3 ]
Output Array: [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9]
==================================================
dsa_using_c_sorting_techniques.htm
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